North Star














   Artistic Concept:


Oil– North Star ( of Galileu  [1564-1642] )

2008 - ( 24 x 19 cm )


   Scientific Concept:


     Probably the most important star in the night sky is a little star of reduced magnitude, which is part of the constellation called Ursa Minor. This constellation, visible in the Northern Celestial Hemisphere, date to antiquity and is thought to have been introduced by the Greek philosopher Thales, around the year 600 BC.

     Ever since man has extended its territorial boundaries venturing out into the exploration and conquest of the seas and oceans that this star has become a crucial and essential guide for mankind, since it has become in an orientation star. It is called North Star, Polar Star, or simply in its latin name, Polaris. A small star that almost goes unnoticed, were it not a peculiar feature that distinguishes it from all others ... is that the Polar is the only star that always seems to remain fixed in the sky, motionless in space, immutable in its location in the sky. Throughout the night and over the seasons we can look to the sky and expect to find the location of this star exactly at the same place, at the tail of Ursa Minor.

     Unlike the sun and all the other stars, our perception towards these stars is that they perform a translation movement in the sky, rising in the east and setting in the west. But this relative motion, stars moving in the heavens, is nothing but an illusion caused by the rotation of the Earth.

     « De Revolucionibus » was the first work in the XV century which presented a new idea, proposing that a rotation movement and revolution of the planets would justify this apparent motion of the Sun. The Copernican Heliocentric system places the sun at the center of the solar system, replacing the Geocentric system of Ptolemy. However, at the time, this new idea did not attracted many people or new astronomers. The Copernican revolution was reflected only much later in time.

     In 1597 Galileo informs Kepler, through a personal letter that he had evidence that proved the Heliocentric theory. However, he chose not to make them public immediately, without first gathering the necessary evidence that could final sustain, in a incontestable way, his arguments. With the help of a new instrument, the lunette, Galileo pointed it at the heavens and found out plenty of evidence against the Ptolemaic system, for example: the moons of Jupiter prove that not all heavenly bodies revolve around the earth; the phases of Venus, similar to the Moon, supports the idea that this planet has a solar orbit. All these ideas are consistent with the Copernican system. But it is only in 1610 that Galileo will make the publication of all his observations and discoveries, in his work entitled «Sidereus Nuncius» - ‘ The Messenger of the Stars’ -.

     A work more than revolutionary for its time, a truly amazing, unique and inspired work, and a true work of art!

     Galileo realized that his system of the world required a new way of thinking and a new way of approaching the study of Nature. There are moments in history when old ideas have to be considered in the light of new evidence. Among the developments that he had presented, these seriously questioned the Aristotelian physics of the church. Therefore, only much later is that Galileo will become recognized as the founder of Modern Physics.

     In 1616 his work was denounced to the Roman Catholic Church, which condemns their heliocentric theories, notifying Galileo to no longer publicly defend or teach the Copernican model. His ideas were strongly attacked, arguing that these were nothing but an illusion created by the telescope lens that distorts reality. But the harassment continues and a trial is inevitable. At 21 June 1633 the sentence is given in which is declared the ban of Heliocentric doctrine, because it was contrary to Holy Scripture!

     Consecutively, his work is included in the Index of Forbidden Books and Galileo was forced to sign a document that had forsworn his own work and he is condemned to exile. But Galileo never truly abandoned his theory...



   Literary Concept:


I believe that philosophers fly like the eagles

and not as the crows.”



A deep man needs friends; If everything else fails, there will be the gods;

 But I have no friends or Gods.”

 - ‘When Nietzsche wept’-



If I get lost, I have to look at the North Star and go North. This does not mean I'm hoping to get to the North Star;

My will is, only, to move in that direction.”



"The genius, criminality and madness come, equally, from an abnormality:

they represent, in different ways, an inadaptability to the environment.”



Try to reach the moon, if you cannot do it for a fraction of an inch, you will still see that it is very much closer than when you started.”



The philosopher who said that a perfect job does not need to be redone,

never cut the foliage of a garden.”



Enthusiasm is the greatest strength of the soul. Save it, and you will always be able to achieve everything you want.”